In the current era pakistan is in very critical and crucial situation, the main are electricity problem, Gas problem, unemployment mean shortage of jobs in pakistan, terrorism, and specially political unstablization, these are the main problems which I think effected pakistan stablization, I will talk about the electricity in this article,
The last and perhaps the most difficult crisis in the Pakistani nation these days is the shortage in supply of electricity. The country is facing a huge electric energy crisis these days. Although it is more than a year ago when the country is facing this crisis, but so far no good solution to this problem is made neither good planning has arisen because the symptoms and begging of this short supply of electricity . During the rolling blackouts or load shedding as it is known locally has always been a staple of daily life in Pakistan, the problem has become acute in the last few years.
This crisis appears insurmountable in the near or even long-term future, unless proper understanding and correct implementation is executed on a priority basis. At present total power production in the country is approximately 19,500 MW, of which Hydel Power is only 6,500 MW, the thermal balance of 13,000 MW using either natural gas or fuel oil. Small capacity of 450 MW to 150 MW nuclear power and only by means of coal.
It is important due to the prevailing situation. The current price of oil is about Rs.49, 000 per tonne, which amounts to Rs.49 / - per kg. On an average one kilo of oil produces 3.8 kWh of electricity. For example, the cost of fuel oil for the generation of a unit of power is approximately Rs.13. In addition to this fixed cost of a thermal power plant operates at approximately Rs.3 per unit. Therefore, a unit (kWh) of the electricity produced by all the thermal power stations with the aid of fuel oil is Rs.16 per unit. According to WAPDA / IPP agreement, the private energy producers charge WAPDA the actual fuel costs for which they have a direct contract with PCA. As we all know that WAPDA tariff charged to consumers is about Rs.5 per unit (kWh).
The production of fuel oil electricity is Rs.16 per unit, adding the transmission, distribution costs (including loses), “the total cost of electricity that comes to about Rs.22 per kWh. The difference between WAPDA tariff and the furnace oil electricity is Rs.17 per kWh. “It is estimated that the country at least 25 billion units of electricity per year produced by heating oil, equivalent to the total deficit of Rs.425 consumes one billion. If WAPDA has to balance his books It would be a subsidy of Rs.425 billion. This deficit is somewhat reduced as a result of cheap electricity produced through hydel energy and natural gas, but the deficit can not substantially change, unless most of the electricity is produced through hydel energy. It is clear that a deficit of Rs.300-350 billion can not be enforced, the government has no means to such a large subsidy to pay, and it is not feasible for the power rate increase very much. Therefore, the power crisis is much larger than what is observed. In the absence of extremely heavy subsidy, WAPDA is delaying payments to IPPs and also for oil companies. The result is that IPP is now much less power than their ability to produce. In the second half of december last year, the situation got so bad that WAPDA and KESC (electricity entities in Pakistan) resorted to draconian levels of load shedding. The power failure during this period amounted to 20-22 hrs per day in most small towns and even cities like Karachi saw 18 + hour shutdown.
A scheduler, it should be clear that the country can not electricity produced by means of oil. Indigenous fuels such as coal, gas, atomic will be developed and rapidly.
The Way Forward: Notwithstanding the systemic problems such as not to create new dams and the previous government unable to even a single megawatt of new power plants add to the net for 9 years of her reign to build, it seems that the current crisis is a result of poor management and lack of foresight. The total installed capacity of WAPDA and KESC is around 19,500 megawatts. Almost two thirds of this power comes from thermal power plants (fossil fuels) is generated by one-third water and about 2% comes from nuclear power plants.
In the short term, the deficits must somehow be met. The main immediate action that can give some relief is the conservation of energy. The government has already announced a number of measures such as shutting off the power on billboards, hoardings and neon signs. Recently in Lahore super large screen TV were installed in key traffic points. In order to ensure that the temperature down air conditioners installed behind these sets. Despite the government directions, the energy saving measures are not implemented. Stores a lot of lamps, which can be easily reduced. A suggestion that cities are divided into zones, and the market in these areas will be closed on different days, can also use the peak power consumption. In view of conservation measures, nazims to perform Naib nazims should visit the areas and try to convince and negotiate with the people, shopkeepers, etc., and urges them to cooperate with the individual interests and of society as a whole .
Currently, IPP, and WAPDA owned thermal plants are on average about 50 percent plant factor, which means they are not used to their potential, 70 to 80 percent plant factor is quite possible, it would be better maintenance of such facilities. A higher plant factor on these plants can be 20 to 30 percent more energy, which will bypass the current shortages to some extent. Improving the plant factor of the existing facilities is much cheaper than setting up new plants, but new plants will still be needed. One of the reasons for low plant factor is that resources are not made available for the purchase of oil; solution for this factor will help in the short term increase in energy production. The government immediately announced that 1200 MW of additional facilities will be established. Currently, the country has about 28 trillion CFT of recoverable gas is available, the annual consumption is about 1.2 trillion CFT, which means that even if the gas is increased, the existing recoverable gas will be sufficient for the next 15 years. The additional thermal generation of gas, but so that additional gas will be available to the gas pressure, and the transmission system can be improved.
For hydroelectric projects, the big companies only be built on the Indus River, where not only hydro-electricity can be produced, but very necessary water storage can also be a byproduct. Some legitimate concerns on the environmental and social impacts of large dams are there, but satisfactory solutions to such concerns can be found.
The current power crisis is grossly due to high oil prices, and the country has to prepare for at least the next few years one way or another to deal with because there is no immediate cheaper alternate solutions available. It is a great misfortune that the new Hydel projects are not implemented, neither the indigenous coal production has started, investments in existing and new gas field have failed. The policy orientation has changed drastically and indigenous means such as hydel energy production and the development of mining and the new fields should be a top priority.
In a Urdu Newspaper Breaking news: Khanewal: Pakistan Muslim League Nawaz’s (PML-N) Chief Mian Nawaz Sharif on Thursday held the federal government responsible for the electricity crisis in Punjab, Dawn News reported. Addressing a press conference in Khanewal, Sharif said that the people of Punjab are most affected by the electricity crisis, which forced them to come out on the streets in protest. The PML-N chief said that industries in Punjab are on the brink of disaster due to the power shortage. Speaking about the ongoing protests in Punjab, Sharif said: “when people have a stool up to 20 hours to you, this reaction is completely natural.” Sharif said that he thought of a long march through the Punjab Chief Minister Shahbaz Sharif supported. Sharif also endorsed the idea of importing electricity from India.